Friday, February 28, 2020

Object Oriented Metrics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Object Oriented Metrics - Essay Example This paper therefore discloses three perspectives under which Object Oriented metrics can be considered. The first one is the fault analysis by OOM, types and new metrics and finally their functions Based on Object Oriented Metrics there are two types of faulty and these include the type I, type II and type III faults. Type I and II are the ones termed as OO faults and type III ones are the non- OO faults. The type I faults are mostly connected to the Object Oriented (OO) and are normally introduced by features such as Inheritance and Polymorphism. The type I faults therefore can be categorized further into two sub-divisions. These are the Inheritance faults and Polymorphism faults derived from the features introducing the faults (Fenton, 1991). The Inheritance OO fault majority is introduced or occur when derived class modifies data / information member of the base class and this finally changes the behavior of the base class, causing the fault in the long runs modification results into changing the environment of the base class that inform causes faults encountered. Then faults caused are either encountered in the derived class or the base class. Polymorphism fault is another type of object oriented fault encountered on the O... For example when two objects send different bindings to send a service request then the total combination is the product of the findings from the two objects - resulting into different combination binding into the occurrence of a fault called Polymorphism fault. The fault actually occurs when testing is not done in the testing phase (Harrison, 1988). The type II faults are special kinds of OO characterized by object copying, dangling reference and object memory usage faults objects copying fault occur if there is a duplication of the original object or the generation of a reference to the original object. This occurs during the implementation of the method of copying whereby the copying method may be incorrect. Dangling reference fault from the word Dangle meaning hang or swing without anything stopping it. Therefore, Dangling reference fault is experienced when an object say object X tries to reference another object say Y that was destroyed by a third object say object Z. the object memory usage fault on the other hand happens when an object allocates during the run time allocates memory but fails to remove the information when no longer required. Basically, this is how the object oriented memory usage fault occurs (Basil, Bariand and Melo, 1996). The type III faults are also called / referred to as a non - OO faults because they are not related to objects. They are traditional faults therefore are classified under the traditional software (Harrison 1988). After looking at the object oriented faults, it is therefore logical to be able to understand the object Oriented Metrics. These are system softwares that are developed to realize the structure and the

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Society and Culture Aims and Objectives Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Society and Culture Aims and Objectives - Essay Example This could be said to be the capacity of the human beings to affect choices between alternatives, and to exercise and to impose those choices on society. It is normally contrasted to common forces, which are causes involving only spontaneous processes. Human agencies envisages the apparent claims that humans do, in fact, make decisions and endorse them on How humans come to make decisions, by free choice or other processes, is another issue.(Agency(Philosophy) 2008). Individualized human behaviour is a complex and intricate process of the human mind and behaviour, although aspects of group behaviours patterns could be predicted with reasonable degree of certainly and accuracy. The mental buildup and behaviourism of criminal thoughts and actions could offer analysis on its workings. It has earlier been explained that structure deals with the grouping, or collective mass of homogenous or, even heterogeneous matters to form a social structure or arrangement. In the criminal settings, a prison, or a penitentiary may serve to act as a social structure, group or setting. Even in terms of psychiatry, which relies heavily on sociology and social behaviourism, crime could be explained in terms of perverse or anti-social connotations. More than a desire to accumulate wealth, or money, criminal minds works to wreck revenge or retribution on the establishment since they may, at some time, have suffered deprivations at its hands. Again, the structure of the criminal mind, or the process of criminalised society is an offshoot of the social structure, which forms the basis of this paper. Centralization of wealth: Thus, it is seen that social structures creates avenues for disillusionment for people in terms of wealthy cliques, class differences and other subgroups. This in turn, may centralize wealth or potential for wealth in the hands of a select few to the exclusion of the toiling masses. The disparities in the social groups give rise to disillusionment, frustration, poverty and resultant criminal behaviour. Nevertheless, one could argue that criminals are present e vent in the wealthy groups, so where does the nexus between social groups and crime, organized or otherwise, arise When we consider that a wealthy criminal is governed not by class considerations but his intentions to negate society, to dominate and control it, to the exclusions of others, including legally elected Governments of countries. In the case of India, in parts of Northern provinces, people pay taxes to the local Mafiosi's and not to government, since they are well aware that the government cannot protect their lives or properties, but the Mafias could. These organized criminal groups or