Friday, December 13, 2019

The Uk Smoking Problem Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

The purpose of this authorship is to critically measure and compare and contrast the research schemes, designs and methods, every bit good as their importance used in MILCH, E. Catherine et Al ( 2004 ) . Smoking surcease in primary attention: a clinical effectivity test of two simple intercessions published in Preventive Medicine Vol. We will write a custom essay sample on The Uk Smoking Problem Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now 38, pp. 284 – 294 and COLEMAN Tim, CHEATER Francine and MURPHY Elizabeth ( 2004 ) . Qualitative survey look intoing the procedure of giving anti-smoking advice in general pattern published in Patient Education and Counseling, Vol. 52, pp. 159 – 163. At the really beginning of this piece, it should be made clear, that chief focal point is to measure research methodological analysiss and methods applied in this two diary articles, along with their rightness for turn toing the chosen research inquiries. Additionally, attending will be paid to motivation literature and issues of sampling, dependability and cogency. First, a sum-up of the findings of this paper will be provided. Then, the research design of each diary article will be discussed in bend. Finally, decisions will be drawn in order to fulfill the purposes of this paper. Context Through the universe smoke presents a public wellness job. In UK, every bit good as in USA smoke is one of the prima causes of decease [ 1 ] and is responsible for highly high wellness attention costs. Although, in both states there are legion anti-smoking bubblies, in USA about one-fourth of grownup Americans smoke [ 2 ] and in UK about the same per centum of grownups declares themselves as tobacco users [ 3 ] . Coleman et al. , every bit good as Milch et Al. suggest that around 70 % of tobacco users see their general practician ( GP ) at least one time a twelvemonth. Numerous surveies ( Ockene 1987, Glynn 1988, Manley, Epps and Glynn 1992 and Silagy and Ketteridge 1999 ) show that tobacco users perceive practicians ‘ advice to discontinue as strong motive for surcease. Both surveies stress that, unluckily GP frequently fail to supply their patients with surcease advice either to avoid confrontation with patients or they do non possess a scope of accomplishments for tobacco us er surcease guidance. For this grounds Coleman, Cheater and Murphy wrote this paper researching procedure of giving anti-smoking advices in general pattern, one of a few which they based on same informations. Recognizing the importance of systematic protocols for designation of patients who smoke, Milch et al. put up clinical effectivity test to measure effectivity of two simple intercessions ( critical mark cast and smoke appraisal questionnaire ) on smoking surcease in primary attention. Your overall feeling? ? ? ? ? ? Summary Importance The paper aˆzQualitative survey look intoing the procedure of giving anti-smoking advice in general pattern † posits an interesting connexion between ( 1 ) GP ; ( 2 ) their repertory of techniques for covering with tobacco users who were non motivated to halt and ( 3 ) factors that influence the procedure of giving anti-smoking advices. Previous survey conducted by same writers aˆz Factors act uponing treatment about anti smoke between general practicians and patients who smoke: a qualitative survey † British Journal of General Practitioners 2000 ; Vol. 50, pp. 207 – 210 suggests that GPs normally expect negative reaction from patients to whom they give anti smoke advice. Furthermore, GPs perceive relationship between physician and patient as hapless. For all this grounds, they were less likely to speak about smoke with patients and they carefully choose with which patients to discourse it. The paper aims to derive insight into GP behavior in relation to an ti-smoking guidance and concept hypothesis and recommendations how this procedure could be improved in future. This was at the clip of great importance as new smoking surcease services were adopted in UK that proposed preparation of wellness professionals in anti smoke methods. Therefore, efficient preparation class for GPs should include findings from current clinical pattern. Though, important for lending to GPs pattern, it must be mentioned that old documents of this writers based on the same information and covering with really similar inquiries compromise the originality of this piece of composing. Additionally, figure of premises that sparked off this paper is based on informations produced by the same group of writers which might propose that research worker prejudice exists to some extent. It is ever utile to include other research documents cut downing research worker prejudice KEY FINDINGS This paper is of import because it makes a part to knowledge how GP get down anti smoke treatment, what is content of their messages and what attack GP adopt. Coleman, Cheater and Murphy suggest that GPs take great care how to raise inquiry of smoking. Two ways are predominating ; about half of the GPs interviewed say that they use several different methods to get down conversation and observe patients reaction and other half utilize `humour or â€Å" low key † attacks to bring on the subject in a non-threatening manner` Coleman, Cheater and Murphy ( 2004, p. 161 ) . Additionally, general practicians admitted that they lack equal methods and accomplishments for measuring smokers` motive to discontinue. Body linguistic communication, position and oculus contact were one of really of import motive indexs. If patients stated that they are in the center of quitting or are â€Å" cutting down † on coffin nails they were considered as motivated. The one weakness to halt, desp ite several negotiations with GPs, was considered as unmotivated. Once successfully originating the conversation, general practicians focused on conveying the message about wellness and economic benefits of halting smoke, every bit good as raising consciousness about smoke and contradictory wellness status i.e. high blood pressure or contradictory intervention i.e. preventive pill. More or less three quarters of general practicians said that they prefer utilizing non-confrontational attacks, which they described as â€Å" non-didactic † , â€Å" subdued † , â€Å" encouraging † , over confrontational, â€Å" acquiring across † and â€Å" shouting † attacks. Despite their penchant, around half of GPs admit that they use confrontational attack. Small figure even admitted awful patients ; particularly those who suffer smoking caused unwellnesss. Result Results of this research suggest that general practicians need broader spectrum of schemes and methods for giving anti smoke advices. In add-on to this, two new field of survey demand to be farther explored: usage of confrontation and terrorization as driver for behavior alteration and ways of measuring patients ‘ motive by GPs. Lack of GPs` competencies and methods for giving anti smoke advices suggests that paper has deductions for NHS smoking surcease services, Department of Health in UK in 2004, the twelvemonth it was published. Motivation The motive of writers is clear. Recognizing how important are general practicians in smoking surcease procedure they set out to detect to what extent are GPs are skilled and how developed are their methods for giving anti smoke advices. At the clip being this issue vas really modern-day, as UK authorities proposed preparation in smoking surcease methods and to cognize from where betterments should get down finding current clinical pattern was important. Importance Paper `Smoking surcease in primary attention: a clinical effectivity test of two simple interventions` nowadayss relationship between ( 1 ) critical mark cast, ( 2 ) smoke appraisal questionnaire ( SAQ ) and ( 3 ) their consequence on smoking surcease. As antecedently mentioned, clinicians frequently are unsuccessful in accessing baccy usage or in presenting anti-smoking advices. This leads us to reason that there is demand for practical, clip and cost effectual smoke surcease intercession. Milch et Al. successfully confirm their initial hypothesis that these two uncomplicated intercessions better indentifying tobacco users and prompt anti smoke advices. Greatest strength of this survey lies in the fact that it `was designed to resemble real-world practice` Milch et Al. ( 2004, pp. 293 ) , it requires minimum preparation, no excess clinicians and recommends betterments for GPs` pattern. However, it should non be overlooked that a few initial premises are based on instead old literatu re, such as Ockene, JK. ( 1987 ) , Glynn, TJ. ( 1988 ) , etc. Collis and Hussey ( 2009 ) suggest that a danger exists when a piece is trusting on old informations, because it has small relevancy to modern pattern and that farther usage of this information can be `incidental and opportunistic` . KEY FINDINGS Key findings imply that intercessions used positively affected testing for smoke and did non hold any `dramatic consequence on clinicians supplying surcease advice` Milch et Al. ( 2004, pp. 290 ) . Both intercessions increased rated of anti smoke advices by primary attention practicians ( PCP ) 47 % on the cast group and 52 % on the SAQ group in comparing to 33 % on control group. It is interesting that smoking surcease rate was the highest on the SAQ group – 30 % , than on the cast group – 4 % and control group – 11 % . Why smoking surcease rate was higher than the stamp group rate demands farther geographic expedition. Last but non the least, high section of patients in the intercession squads stated that they reduced the figure of coffin nails, greater than before motive, assurance about halting to smoke, believing of discontinuing and consciousness of wellness hazards. Although, a few initial premises are based on old articles and the research showed that smo king surcease rate was higher in the control group than in the cast group, it must be admitted that this research has deduction to GPs pattern. Result The most important result of Milch et Al. article ( 2004 ) is the verification of hypothesis that two simple intercessions used will better designation of tobacco users and bring on smoking surcease advices. In add-on to this, this research has deduction for general practitioners` pattern as methods analysed here are unsophisticated, easy to larn, clip and cost effectual. Motivation Motivation of writers of this research is really clear. Additionally, it is similar to motive of Coleman, Cheater and Murphy`s. Both research paper reference modern-day issue at that clip – deficiency of methods for testing patients for smoke and developing methods for get downing and presenting anti smoke advices. [ 1 ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/tables/health/attrdeaths/index.htmlH: obacco2.gif [ 4 ] Ockene JK. Physician-delivered intercessions for smoking surcease ; schemes for increasing effectivity. Preventive Medicine 1987 ; 16 723 – 737 [ 5 ] Manley, MW Epps RP, Glynn TJ The clinicians function in advancing smoking surcease among clinic patients. Med Clin Nort America 1992 76 477-494 [ 6 ] Glynn, TJ Relative effectivity of doctor initiated smoking surcease plan Cancer Bulletin 1988 40 359 – 364 [ 7 ] Silagy C. Ketteridge S. physician advice for smoking surcease ( Cochrane Review ) . The Cochrane Library, Issue I Oxford: Update Software 1999 Bryman, Alan ( 2008 ) . Social Research Methods. 3rd ed. , Oxford University Press Collis, Jill and Hussey, Roger ( 2009 ) . Business Research, A Practical Guide for undergraduate and postgraduate pupils. 3rd ed. , Palgrave Macmillan How to cite The Uk Smoking Problem Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Intermediate Managerial Accounting free essay sample

Students are expected to read the assigned chapters, class notes, and other assigned materials before coming to class and are expected to discuss the assigned chapters and other related materials during lectures. Course Objectives : The role of the management accountant in today’s business organization is to provide quantitative and qualitative information to support management’s decision-making function. This course is intended to bridge the transition between the computation of data and the use of the data for strategic purposes. The course will also introduce the use of case analysis and the application of critical thinking to managerial accounting information. http://beedie. sfu. ca/courses/bus322 ID: your SFU ID Password: your SFU password Course email: [emailprotected] ca Course website : Grading : Grading scheme : A weighted mark of the following elements Case analysis (one written report – group) Case presentation (one presentation – group) Class participation (during case presentation individual) Assignments (individual) Midterm exam (individual) Final exam (comprehensive – individual) Total Relative performance measurement

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Misunderstood Monster Essays - Beowulf, Monsters, Grendel

The Misunderstood Monster The Misunderstood Monster Grendel by John Gardner is a presentation of the dark, the misunderstood, and the ugly. Throughout the novel readers will come to understand the way grendels mind works, events that set him off and all of the different characteristic that make him the monster he is. In the novel Grendel by John Gardner, Grendel is presented to the audience as a coward, he would only attack at night when the guards of the mead hall were asleep, and he was an insensitive character and a monster. Grendel can be proven as a monster for multiple reasons. First and foremost, Grendel lived with his mother in an open cave at the bottom of a boiling lake. Second, Grendel was born and raised to be wicked; I was Grendel, Ruiner of Meadhalls, Wrecker of Kings! (Grendel, p. 80) he never had the chance to become good. All Grendel knew was how to be barbaric and monstrous, and he lived by what he was taught at a young age. Also, whenever Grendel came in contact with music and sounds of pleasure and joy, he would instantaneously be filled with anger and hatred. Grendel also seeks vengeance on the good rather than the evil mainly due to his familys history. Throughout the novel, the audience will come to notice that there were certain events that traumatically effected Grendel. The first event was the story of Cain and Abel. When Grendel hears the story of Cain and Abel from the Shaper, he is pleased, but also upset because he is skeptical about what he heard. Grendel is aware that the shapers songs are built upon a foundation of lies, but he knows that man cannot be as holy as the Shaper had suggested, because he himself has seen evidence of humankinds brutality. Grendel also feels that he was cursed by it and that he is a punishment from God for Cains actions of killing Abel. Grendel is a savage that can only join the humans by fighting them. The final event that had an effect on Grendel was the death of the Shaper. The shapers stories were Grendels gateway into history. The Shaper gave Grendel a sense of what was true and untrue in history. For Grendel the Shaper had legitimized Hrothgars rule and even his own ancestry. The Shaper cl aimed that Grendel was a descendent of Cain. It was the loss of historical content that saddened Grendel the most; it no longer had a meaning to him after the death of the Shaper. Throughout the novel, society has played a main part in the way Grendel thinks and acts. During the novel, the audience will come to notice that Grendels relationship with the humans is defined by his intellectual interest in their philosophies. It can also be characterized by his emotional concept of community. Grendel lives in a world where he attempts to communicate with the humans but constantly fails. His mother lacks the capacity for language and even if she could speak, she would probably be an unworthy conversational partner for Grendel. Grendel often finds himself talking to the sky wishing for a response he knows he will never get. "Why can't I have someone to talk to?" I said. The stars said nothing, but I pretended to ignore the rudeness. "The Shaper has people to talk to," I said. I wrung my fingers. "Hrothgar has people to talk to."(Grendel, p. 53)Throughout the novel, Grendel remains stranded between what he knows is true and what he wishes was true. Grendel understand s the world as a brute, mechanical place that follows no pattern or universal law. He also knows that all the things the Shaper has sung about are merely human projections on the universes chaos. At times, Grendel finds himself willing to accept the role of the evil monster, just so he can be granted a place in society.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Piracy Crackdown

Piracy Crackdown It is estimated that $11 billion in software revenues have been lost due to piracy according to . Thanks to file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Gnutella, Morpheus, BareShare, iMesh, Audio Galaxy Satellite, Direct Connect, Kazaa lite, Grokster, LimeWire, and others it is made possible and easy to pirate software. There’s something very wrong with this. Not only is it computer fraud but, the amounts of file-sharing software available leads you to the fact that it is incredibly way too common. In an annual study by it is believed that more than one-third of applications are pirated copies. Maybe because it is sometimes quicker to download software on a file-sharing program than it is if you were to drive to an electronics store and physically buy it. Although file-sharing programs have allowed users to freely distribute illegal copies of software it is not entirely their fault. Then who’s to blame? If software companies were more serious about piracy, then shouldn’ t there be higher tactical measures to prevent piracy from occurring? It isn’t a common everyday thing that someone would steal software from Fry’s Electronics. Yet it is 3 clicks away via internet. If software companies would spend more time on their security features there would be less pirated software. In an article published today by Lisa M. Bowman of CNET News.com, it is said that, â€Å"The U.S. Naval Academy Has Seized about 100 student computers that are suspected of containing unauthorized copies of copyrighted works.† It is good that they are doing something about piracy on college campuses, but that’s 100 out of several thousands of college users pirating software. That also does not mean those 100 students will stop from pirating once more. In the article it explains how universities restrict ways in dealing with file-sharing programs such as using bandwidth management tools to block or restrict file swapping. This is a bad way to pre... Free Essays on Piracy Crackdown Free Essays on Piracy Crackdown Piracy Crackdown It is estimated that $11 billion in software revenues have been lost due to piracy according to . Thanks to file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Gnutella, Morpheus, BareShare, iMesh, Audio Galaxy Satellite, Direct Connect, Kazaa lite, Grokster, LimeWire, and others it is made possible and easy to pirate software. There’s something very wrong with this. Not only is it computer fraud but, the amounts of file-sharing software available leads you to the fact that it is incredibly way too common. In an annual study by it is believed that more than one-third of applications are pirated copies. Maybe because it is sometimes quicker to download software on a file-sharing program than it is if you were to drive to an electronics store and physically buy it. Although file-sharing programs have allowed users to freely distribute illegal copies of software it is not entirely their fault. Then who’s to blame? If software companies were more serious about piracy, then shouldn’ t there be higher tactical measures to prevent piracy from occurring? It isn’t a common everyday thing that someone would steal software from Fry’s Electronics. Yet it is 3 clicks away via internet. If software companies would spend more time on their security features there would be less pirated software. In an article published today by Lisa M. Bowman of CNET News.com, it is said that, â€Å"The U.S. Naval Academy Has Seized about 100 student computers that are suspected of containing unauthorized copies of copyrighted works.† It is good that they are doing something about piracy on college campuses, but that’s 100 out of several thousands of college users pirating software. That also does not mean those 100 students will stop from pirating once more. In the article it explains how universities restrict ways in dealing with file-sharing programs such as using bandwidth management tools to block or restrict file swapping. This is a bad way to pre...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Ice Hockey- The North American vs. The European Style of Play Essay

Ice Hockey- The North American vs. The European Style of Play - Essay Example Ice hockey is generally played indoors on rinks, which are usually 200 feet wide and 85 feet wide in North America while outside the country, the rinks are 200.13 feet long and 98.5 feet wide. These are always surrounded by fences called boards with shatterproof glass affixed on top, in order to ensure that the puck stays within the limits of the rink and does not find its way outside, where it may be harmful for the spectators. However the size of the rink does not depend upon the age of the players (like in junior and adult soccer) or on the skill involved. These rinks are partitioned into two exact halves by a red line, while blue lines are drawn at a distance of 60 feet from each goal and demarcate the end zones. The area that lies in between the blue lines is referred to as the neutral zone. At the very center of the field is a blue spot which signals the spot where the play begins when the game starts for the first time, however at a distance of about 24 feet from the boards th ere are red spots located which signal the spots from which the play re-starts after interruptions (Loftus, 2005). The rink is curved at its outer ends and a another red line appears at the point where they begin to curve and the goal is situated at the middle of this goal line. The goal itself is an iron frame that is 4 feet high and 6 feet wide and has curved bars extending down to the surface of the ice. Stretched across these bars are mesh nets and the goals are held in place by dint of short pegs that are firmly embedded in the ice. In front of the net is the crease which is a painted half circle. Within the limits of this crease, players attacking from the opponent team are not permitted to make contact with the goalie, since this would constitute a foul. In order to reduce the likelihood of injury from collision with the net, the pegs and goal posts separate, and play must be stopped mandatorily whenever a net is